From the Scholarly Publishing & Academic Resource Coalition: “Open Access is the free, immediate, online availability of research articles combined with the rights to use these articles fully in the digital environment. Open Access is the needed modern update for the communication of research that fully utilizes the Internet for what it was originally built to do—accelerate research.”
Open Access can be accomplished in a variety of ways:
- Open Access journals make scholarly articles freely available to the public.
- PDXScholar, the PSU digital repository, makes available scholarly works, similar to other online institutional and disciplinary repositories.
- Data Management services are available to make data and other research products, such as lab notebooks, open to the public.
The Open Access movement has resulted in institutional policies and mandates requiring authors to make their works open access. Some examples include:
- Oregon State University’s Open Access Mandate
- Academic Senate of the University of California Open Access Policy
- ROARMAP: Registry of Open Access Repositories Mandatory Archiving Policies
- Plan S the European Union funder initiative requiring that, from 2020, scientific publications that result from research funded by public grants must be published in compliant Open Access journals or platforms
- OPEN Government Data Act government-wide mandate requiring U.S. federal agencies to publish all non-sensitive government information including federally-funded research as open data using standardized, non-proprietary formats.
- Plan U proposes the most effective way to achieve open scholarship is through the use of preprint servers and institutional repositories to provide access to scholarly content.
Public Access refers to federal policy initiatives that have directed federal funding agencies with a research budget of more than $100M, to put into place plans to make freely available outputs from publicly funded research. There are three important distinctions between Open Access and Public Access:
- Public Access does not require that final, published versions of works are made available, but rather pre-print of articles;
- Public Access does not require use licenses to allow for modification and re-use of works;
- Works may be embargoed for up to 12 months from publication.
For more information about Public Access, please see: